Al-Ghazali has mentioned the following negative tendencies of this nafs naming them with ‘spiritual diseases’:
1) Nifaq (hypocrisy)
2) Pride and arrogance
3) Hawa or desire
8) Ri’a (show off)
These are the most harmful tendencies of al-nafs and greatest barriers to the growth of man. When these dominate the self, man loses his insight and his total energies are diverted towards unnecessary activities. As a result, he starts believing deception as truth, fiction as reality and self-glorification as his highest goal in life.